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Los geriatras piden hacer una PCR a los nuevos residentes 72 horas antes de su ingreso

La Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG) ha elaborado y enviado a las autoridades sanitarias un decálogo de recomendaciones para el manejo de los rebrotes de COVID-19 que puedan aparecer en las residencias de personas mayores,...
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Massive party at NY mansion busted with 400 people
Cops busted a massive party with as many as 400 people who were stuffed in a Long Island mansion early Monday morning.
foxnews.com
Kwanza Hall wins special election to serve remainder of John Lewis' term in Congress
The remainder of the late US Rep. John Lewis' term will be served by Democrat Kwanza Hall, who won control of the reliably blue seat in a House runoff special election in Georgia Tuesday, CNN projects.
edition.cnn.com
Using Elliot Page's 'Deadname' is a Problem—Here's Why
Elliot Page's coming out as transgender led to an overwhelming outpouring of support for "The Umbrella Academy" – and a swift backlash against those using his "deadname."
newsweek.com
Hong Kong Democracy Activist Joshua Wong Goes to Prison Vowing That His Fight Will Continue
The prominent activist was handed a sentence of 13.5 months but shouted “We will hang in there" as he was whisked away
time.com
U.K. becomes 1st country to approve Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine for use
Government grants emergency use authorization and says the vaccine will be distributed from next week following "months of rigorous clinical trials."
cbsnews.com
Roger Stone Accuses Bill Barr of 'Deep State' Connection Following Voter Fraud Dismissal
Trump's former adviser made the claim after Barr said the Justice Department found no evidence that would "produce different outcome in the election."
newsweek.com
Live updates: Biden to hold roundtable with workers, small-business owners; Mark Kelly to join Senate
The president-elect is seeking to keep a focus on the economy a day after he pledged "a recovery for everybody." Meanwhile, Democrats will pick up a seat in the Senate.
washingtonpost.com
Ram 1500 TRX named MotorTrend Truck of the Year
Fiat Chrysler's new 702-horsepower Ram 1500 TRX has been named the MotorTrend Truck of the Year.
edition.cnn.com
Afghan forces are on defensive, says former ambassador
On "Intelligence Matters," Mike Morell speaks with former U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan Ronald Neumann about national security interests amid the change in administrations.
cbsnews.com
US stock futures head lower after setting records
View more stock market news today.
edition.cnn.com
2020's best new airport amenities: COVID-19 testing stations, outdoor lounges, coat checks, more
Through air traffic took a major hit in 2020, airports haven't been idle. Here are some of the best amenities introduced around the country this year.       
usatoday.com
The best new airport amenities of 2020
From on-site COVID-19 testing facilities to drive-in movie theaters and coat checks, these airport amenities made 2020 a little more bearable.       
usatoday.com
John Yoo: AG Barr support for special counsel backed by surprise Democratic author of 1987 law review article
In 1987, a prominent Democratic U.S. senator wrote a strong argument in favor of appointing special counsels like the one Attorney General William Barr has appointed to investigate the origins of the Trump-Russia collusion probe.
foxnews.com
Côte d’Ivoire reelected its president. Opposition candidates boycotted the voting.
The election reflected political rivalries that date back 30 years.
washingtonpost.com
No matter how long you've been at this, your small business is now a startup
Embracing the idea of being a startup gives you more energy and a more positive outlook.       
usatoday.com
For contact tracers, COVID-19 fight is personal: 'I understand hardship'
Contact tracers tell people they've tested positive for the coronavirus or warn they've been exposed to it. The conversations are confidential and sometimes surprisingly intimate.
latimes.com
Op-Ed: How to reverse Trump's immigration disasters — even without Congress
Trump used executive action to carry out his immigration agenda, so Biden can unwind it in the same way.
latimes.com
The telling things Barack Obama wrote — and didn’t mention — about his education policies in new memoir
School reform policy was a flashpoint in his administration. Here's what he says.
washingtonpost.com
Opportunities come to industry leaders: Here are 5 steps to becoming a genuine authority in your field
The key to building credibility in your industry is sincerity and hard work, not quick gimmicks and scams.       
usatoday.com
Biden Will Add to Legacy: A History of Presidential Cats
Biden's announced he's not only bringing dogs back into the White House but a cat too. Here's a look back at other felines that used the White House as a scratching pad.
newsweek.com
Alvin Ailey’s ‘Revelations’ has a place of honor in company’s first virtual season
Troupe experiments with filming outdoors and creates “Testament,” an homage to the beloved 1960 work.
washingtonpost.com
Mark Kelly to be sworn in Wednesday, giving Arizona two Democratic senators for first time in more than six decades
Kelly, 56, a former astronaut and the husband of former congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords (D-Ariz.), defeated Sen. Martha McSally (R) in a special election last month.
washingtonpost.com
Winter wonders: Conifers revive the sleeping garden. But remember, less is more.
Consider smaller varieties or planting a single tree (but choose wisely) for the greatest effect.
washingtonpost.com
The death and rebirth of America’s department stores, in charts
Shaneé Benjamin for Vox A look at the finances, footprints, and futures of department store chains. The pandemic has been terrible for numerous industries, and department stores are no exception. Once the main place many Americans did their clothing and other retail shopping, department stores have long been in decline, along with the malls that they anchored. The decline of department stores, which have substantial footprints in physical real estate, is indicative of how shopping in America is continually moving online. Americans are still buying plenty — retail sales have already risen beyond their pre-pandemic highs, according to census data — but the shopping landscape has changed. A spate of department store bankruptcies, declining sales, and closures, as well as a variety of new businesses popping up in their place show that retail in America is in a state of rapid transition. These trends also provide a number of clues as to where this will all land. Death of department stores by the numbers A big challenge for department stores in recent years is the sheer overhead of the physical space they occupy. This is part of the reason why online retailers have an edge. They sell all the same stuff as department stores, but their real estate footprint is much smaller. And the pandemic meant that Americans couldn’t go to these stores safely — or legally — exacerbating a long-term trend away from shopping in stores. In turn, e-commerce sales surged this year. Online retail sales jumped 32 percent in the second quarter compared to the first quarter, reaching $211.5 billion, according to Census Bureau data. That’s 16 percent of all retail sales. It has since modulated a bit to 14 percent as more businesses reopened in the third quarter, but a new spate of shutdowns could reverse that. !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-G7mNU");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-G7mNU");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() Meanwhile, department store sales have been declining, according to data from the Census Bureau. After sales took a dive in the spring when stay-at-home orders kept people out of stores, the sector is having trouble recovering as Covid-19 numbers are surging again this fall. (Note that if department stores used separate establishments to fulfill their online orders, that wouldn’t be included in the data below, so total revenue should be higher.) !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-yIG3S");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-yIG3S");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() Department stores have upped their online presence, with digital sales at Kohl’s, Nordstrom, and Macy’s up double digits in the second quarter of 2020, according to Coresight Research. But that hasn’t been enough to compensate for overall revenue decline. For the publicly traded department stores, total revenue — which includes online sales — has generally been stagnant if not declining for the past decade, with a precipitous drop this year due to the pandemic. According to earnings reported at the beginning of 2020, annual profit declined for Kohl’s, Macy’s, Dillard’s, Nordstrom, and J.C. Penney. !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-qM0X6");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-qM0X6");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() Foot traffic is another way to look at how department stores’ physical retail operations have declined. Nationwide, foot traffic to major department stores is currently about half what it was last year, according to data from SafeGraph. A new round of lockdowns could bring foot traffic back to where it was this spring: next to nothing. !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-gsoLS");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-gsoLS");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() As a result of these pressures, a slew of department stores filed for bankruptcy this year, beginning with J.C. Penney, Neiman Marcus, and Stage Stores this spring, followed by Century 21, Stein Mart, and Lord & Taylor this summer. Retailers in general have filed for bankruptcy en masse this year, according to a CB Insights report. “The Covid-19 pandemic has only accelerated the fall of several retailers, which have faced dwindling sales and growing debt over the past few years as consumer preferences change,” the report states. !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-QqTBU");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-QqTBU");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() Even department stores that haven’t gone bankrupt are shuttering stores in an effort to cut costs and rightsize their sprawling footprints. As a result, the total number of department stores has declined precipitously in the past few years. There are currently about 6,000 department stores in the US, according to market research firm IBISWorld, and that number is expected to decline by about another 2,000 in the next five years. In February, even before the pandemic began to shutter businesses in the US, Macy’s announced it would be closing more than 20 percent of its stores. This spring, J.C. Penney announced it would close nearly 200 stores this year and another 50 next year — about 30 percent of its stores. Nordstrom announced closures of its own in May. !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-paJAA");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-paJAA");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() Additionally, department stores like Macy’s are opting for smaller footprints as fewer people go to stores and more people shop online. Instead of a place to buy things, the remaining physical stores are functioning as showrooms. “They show you the sexiest goods to stimulate demand and start you thinking, knowing you’re going to pull out your phone and shop there,” Victor Calanog, head of commercial real estate economics at Moody’s, told Recode. They’re also experimenting with different store formats to better serve the areas they’re in, according to MJ Munsell, chief creative officer at architecture and design firm MG2. That can mean smaller stores with merchandise particular to the location, stores geared toward picking up merchandise purchased online, and stores that offer, for example, services like tailoring or makeup application. “The idea that you build the same store throughout the country and people will come is archaic,” she said. The second lives of the fallen department stores The story of dying department stores is also one of new beginnings. Half of department stores within malls could close by the end of 2021, according to Green Street Advisors, and the average department store ranges from 100,000 to 160,000 square feet. All these closures are going to leave behind lots of empty space and unpaid bills — retailers owe $52 billion in back rent — as well as the potential for new businesses to overtake the old. Whether or not it’s viable to repurpose old department stores depends on a number of factors, including location, the building itself, and the needs of other growing businesses. What department stores have been repurposed into falls generally into three buckets: other traditional retail space; something entirely different like restaurants or apartments; or — what has become the de facto replacement — warehouses or fulfillment centers for online retailers like Amazon. Department stores located in regional malls — that is, large malls in densely populated areas — have the best odds of being repurposed, according to Brandon Hardin, a research economist at the National Association of Realtors who worked on the report. “Assuming they’re in the right location, a significant portion could be repurposed into something more useful,” Hardin told Recode. Smaller malls located in less populous areas will have a harder time finding new uses. Department store locations in city centers, especially those in historic buildings, lend themselves well to upscale apartments and offices. Meanwhile, ones located in the suburbs can benefit from conversions that make the space feel more urban. “There’s convenience to living in the suburbs because there’s a lot there, but not a sense of community necessarily,” MG2’s Munsell said. “People are craving the notion that they can go to a space, get something to eat, exercise, meet friends — it gives a sense of place to suburban environments.” As such, MG2 is in the process of reconceptualizing suburban malls, one in Florida and one on the West Coast, to be mixed-use community destinations. The plans include turning the malls and their giant parking lots into a combination of housing, entertainment, restaurants, and pedestrian-friendly green spaces, in addition to new retail space. The National Association of Realtors (NAR) compiled a number of case studies about how malls and the department stores that serve as their anchor tenants have been or are already being repurposed. !function(){"use strict";window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if(void 0!==a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var e in a.data["datawrapper-height"]){var t=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-"+e)||document.querySelector("iframe[src*='"+e+"']");t&&(t.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][e]+"px")}});window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',function(){var i=document.createElement("iframe");var e=document.getElementById("datawrapper-8Sl5k");var t=e.dataset.iframeTitle||'Interactive graphic';i.setAttribute("src",e.dataset.iframe);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("frameborder","0");i.setAttribute("scrolling","no");i.setAttribute("aria-label",e.dataset.iframeFallbackAlt||t);i.setAttribute("title",t);i.setAttribute("height","400");i.setAttribute("id","datawrapper-chart-8Sl5k");i.style.minWidth="100%";i.style.border="none";e.appendChild(i)})}() According to an NAR survey in March, among 94 malls identified as formerly vacant, about a third were simply turned into other types of retail stores or popups. A number of malls have been turned into mixed-use buildings, with much of the retail being replaced by a combination of offices, apartments, and hotel rooms. A handful of others were turned into a wide variety of businesses, including medical offices, fitness centers, churches, and even one cricket stadium. For example, Los Angeles’s Westside Pavilion — this is the iconic mall that used to house Macy’s and Nordstrom and was featured in the movie Clueless — has been converted into office space for Google. Creative Commons The Westside Pavilion mall in Los Angeles, which was featured in Clueless, is being converted into Google office space. Hudson Pacific Properties An artist rendering of repurposed space at the Westside mall. The million square feet of retail space of Worcester Center Galleria in Massachusetts has been converted into 500,000 square feet of office space, 1,000 residential units, and 168 hotel rooms, as well as 350,000 feet of new retail. And then there are warehouses and fulfillment centers. A lot of the conditions that once made department stores in large malls viable also work well for online fulfillment centers. They’re centrally located spaces large enough to hold the goods needed for large nearby populations. Becoming distribution centers represents a productive second life for department stores — albeit one coated in a bit of irony, since the online retailers who use them are part of the reason for department stores’ decline in the first place. The Wall Street Journal reported this summer that Simon Property Group, the biggest mall operator, was discussing turning some of their 11 Sears and 63 J.C. Penney stores — both of which have filed for bankruptcy — into fulfillment locations for Amazon, their biggest competitor. That would provide a much-needed source of revenue for Simon, which received only 85 percent of its expected rent last quarter. Amazon has already converted a number of former retail spaces into online facilities. Last year, Amazon finished construction on an 855,000-square-foot fulfillment center in the place of what had once been the closed and condemned Euclid Square Mall in Ohio. That was the second time an Amazon fulfillment store rose from the ashes of a dead Ohio mall. Indeed, it’s likely many malls and department stores will meet a similar fate. Industrial space commands lower rent than retail, so mall owners will not be getting their previous premiums on those locations. For now, though, anything is better than empty space.
vox.com
Texas Waitress Receives $2,000 Christmas Tip—But Restaurant Can't Give Her a Penny
Mother-of-two Emily Bauer hoped to "splurge" on Christmas for her two young boys, but says her employee told her it is not able to process payments of more than $500.
newsweek.com
Colts punter Rigoberto Sanchez says surgery to remove cancerous tumor was successful
Rigoberto Sanchez, who was diagnosed with the tumor late last week and decided to punt against Tennessee anyway, revealed his illness Monday.        
usatoday.com
Serratos: 'Selena was just like us'
Christian Serratos embodies late Tejano icon Selena Quintanilla in new show "Selena: The Series." (Dec. 2)       
usatoday.com
I live in my van by choice
This couple is living out of their van — and loving it. Self-described “digital nomads” La and Mel Fisher uprooted their life after the COVID-19 pandemic hit. “I need to create my own reality,” La, 46, said to himself. “I just saw the writing on the wall, and we just had to bug out.”  ...
nypost.com
What Ronald Reagan could teach Georgia Republicans about winning
Edward Lindsey writes that if Sens. Kelly Loeffler and David Perdue want to win their respective Georgia Senate runoffs, they'll need to take a cue from former President Ronald Reagan and build a big tent coalition that brings in both the base and new voters.
edition.cnn.com
FBI warns of new coronavirus email auto-forwarding scam
Criminals taking advantage of the COVID-19 pandemic are turning to a new email scamming technique.
foxnews.com
Diego Maradona: Argentinian authorities raid home and office of legend's psychiatrist
Argentinian authorities raided the home and office of Diego Maradona's psychiatrist Agustina Cosachov on Tuesday, CNNE is told. The raids took place amid an investigation into possible manslaughter, the prosecutor working on the case told CNNE.
edition.cnn.com
'I had no idea how we were going to play': Adversity continues to strike Cowboys in coach Mike McCarthy's first season
The 3-8 Dallas Cowboys continue to press forward in what has been a challenging first season under coach Mike McCarthy. They will next play Tuesday.        
usatoday.com
On This Day: 2 December 1999
Romantic drama "The End of the Affair" premiered in Los Angeles. (Dec. 2)       
usatoday.com
China Media Turns Fire on Jacinda Ardern's New Zealand Over Australia Feud
Communist Party newspaper "Global Times" accused Ardern's government of "double standards" following her public backing of Australia and Prime Minister Scott Morrison on Monday.
newsweek.com
ShowBiz Minute: Page, Cosby, Queen Elizabeth II
"Juno" actor comes out as transgender, named Elliot Page; Pennsylvania court questions whether Cosby has a "signature" crime pattern; Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip to spend Christmas at Windsor Castle. (Dec. 2)       
usatoday.com
Health Sec.: UK Hospitals ready for COVID vaccine
British Health Secretary Matt Hancock says hospitals are ready to receive the new coronavirus vaccine and other modes of distribution are being set up. Britain approved the vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech for emergency use on Wednesday. (Dec. 2)       
usatoday.com
After a fatal shooting over loud music, Oregon activists 'demand stronger policies that protect Black lives'
Robert Paul Keegan was arrested on a murder charge after Aidan Ellison was found fatally shot in the parking lot of an Oregon hotel on Nov. 23.        
usatoday.com
'Fortnite' Chapter 2 Season 5 Battle Pass Skins to Tier 100: Mandalorian, Lexa and More
"Fortnite" Chapter 2 Season 5 has just gone live, and we've got a preview of the latest Battle Pass. Here are all the new skins through tier 100.
newsweek.com
Trump teases 2024 run at White House Christmas party
President Trump hinted during a holiday reception Tuesday evening at the White House of running for office again in 2024 – as he continues to allege widespread voter fraud in this year’s election. “It’s been an amazing four years,” the president told the crowd, which included many Republican National Committee members. “We’re trying to do...
nypost.com
Watch a Top Georgia Election Official Get Emotional Calling Out Trump’s Election Incitement
Gabriel Sterling is a Republican and Georgia’s voting system implementation manager.
slate.com
5 things to know for December 2: Covid-19, pardon probe, economy, China, Brazil
Here's what else you need to know to Get Up to Speed and On with Your Day.
edition.cnn.com
Mitch McConnell's Revised Stimulus Proposal Still Not Enough, Economists Say
Proposals for a new round of stimulus checks have been delayed for months, held up by political deadlock in Congress and the election, and experts are skeptical about the noises being made by top decision-makers.
newsweek.com
Bitcoin: An Overnight Success a Decade in the Making | Opinion
In the current craze, which is at least the fourth I've lived through, it's important to remember that the best way to make money is slowly.
1 h
newsweek.com
Minority Rule Cannot Last in America
RALPH MORSE / PIX INC. / THE LIFE IMAGES COLLECTION / GETTYMinority rule is fast becoming the defining feature of the American republic. In 2000 and 2016, presidential candidates who received fewer votes than their opponents were nevertheless sent to the White House. Joe Biden’s 2020 victory came not because he won nearly 7 million more votes nationally than President Donald Trump, but rather because he won about 200,000 votes more in a handful of swing states. Congress has seen a similar dynamic: Though Republican senators make up the majority in the chamber, they represent more than 20 million fewer Americans than Democratic senators do. Such lopsided electoral calculus seems to fly in the face of both parties’ principles. It cannot last.Though this period of minority rule is new since World War II, it is far from unprecedented. Unequal legislative apportionment has been a recurring quality of American government since its establishment. Parties who have found themselves in power by institutional oddities rather than overall weight of vote have refused to reach across the aisle, instead using their institutional advantage to further consolidate their hold on power. Although such tactics have been successful in the short term, they have ultimately been only temporary expedients. When the minority parties were finally removed from power, the backlash against them was swift and strong.[Read: How the minority wins]Begin at the nation’s founding. At the time when American colonists started actively considering independence from Britain, Pennsylvania’s legislature no longer proportionally represented its population. The Pennsylvania Assembly had proved efficient and professional throughout the 18th century, defending the interests of the colonial population against British imperial officials, but as the colony’s population expanded westward, eastern elites refused to extend representation to the predominantly Scotch-Irish and German immigrants living in the new settlements. Additionally, while Philadelphia had grown to become the most populous city in North America, political leaders from the surrounding counties refused to increase the city’s number of representatives. By the early 1770s, the state’s most radical voices in favor of revolution—Philadelphians and westerners—were systematically underrepresented in the legislature.In the short term, the denial of proportional representation worked: Pennsylvania’s government, designed to amplify moderate and conservative voices, was notoriously slow to endorse resistance to Britain, and in 1776 refused to allow its delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence. By this point, though, Pennsylvania’s radicals had taken matters into their own hands. Drawing on protest movements that had gathered pace in 1774 and 1775, they organized a series of conventions giving greater voice to the marginalized. When, in May 1776, the Continental Congress called on states to form their own governments, Pennsylvanians bypassed the colonial assembly entirely, and used the convention and committee movements to send pro-independence delegates to Congress and to write their own state constitution.In September 1776, Pennsylvania’s radicals took their revenge. Each county was given more or less equal representation in the first legislature. This measure was about as biased toward the western counties as the previous arrangements had been toward eastern ones. But having been shut out of power for so long, the radicals were keen to ensure they held the reins. Pennsylvania’s first constitution, by a long shot the most radically democratic of all the original 13 states’, was bitterly contested for the next decade. Conservative opponents tried, and failed, to revise the state constitution four times from 1776 until 1783. Though they finally succeeded in writing a new constitution in 1790, it came at the cost of 14 years of unstable and rancorous government.Just decades later, in the antebellum period, similar dynamics played out once again. Slaveholding states sought to use constitutional arrangements to maintain minority power. The Missouri Compromise of 1820, which admitted slaveholding Missouri to the union at the same time as free Maine, maintained balance in the Senate between free and slave states. Southern politicians considered this balance vital, as it gave a de facto veto to slaveholding states. But demographic change over the ensuing decades quickly meant that northerners outnumbered southerners. Yet only in the aftermath of the notorious Compromise of 1850, and the admission of California as a free state, did the balance between free and slave states snap—at a time when the population of free states was 13.4 million, well exceeding the 9.7 million inhabitants of slave states (of whom 3.2 million were enslaved and couldn’t vote). In the decade that followed, the South attempted to re-create its minority veto, with disastrous results.The politics of the 1850s became consumed with the question of slavery. Southern slaveowners insisted on a new Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, which compelled northern authorities and other residents to actively participate in arresting and returning fugitive slaves to their enslavers. Northerners responded furiously, adopting antislavery politics in greater numbers. Southerners, fearful of the growing strength of the abolitionist movement and the specter of a permanent electoral minority, demanded more slaveholding territory as the nation expanded westward—many called for slavery to be legal in all federal territories, and advocated foreign war to annex new slaveholding territory, such as Cuba.In 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois attempted to broker a compromise between North and South with his Kansas-Nebraska Act. Allowing residents of the Kansas and Nebraska territories to vote on whether to allow slavery within their borders, the act was seen in the North as a naked attempt to extend slavery beyond the Missouri Compromise line and give greater weight to slaveholders in the Senate. Voters in the North turned out in force, leading to the creation of the Republican Party and, ultimately, the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. The South’s attempts to continually impose minority rule on the North failed, leading to secession, the Civil War, and the greatest number of military casualties for a single war in American history.[Clint Smith: In 1864, like in 2020, America just got lucky]Population shifts contributed to a third episode of minority rule in the early 20th century. Rapid industrialization in the years after the Civil War saw the growth of megacities that fundamentally transformed the demographics of several states. In Illinois, Chicago’s population grew from 112,000 in 1860—6 percent of total state residents—to 2.7 million in 1920, or 40 percent of total state residents. According to the state’s constitution, the state legislature should have reapportioned following each decennial census; from 1900 onwards, downstate leaders refused to do so, leaving Chicago heavily underrepresented and overtaxed.In the 1920s, the repeated refusal of the downstate minority to reapportion the legislature was met with increasing frustration from Chicago representatives. Throughout the decade, the city council passed angry resolutions condemning the malapportionment. In 1925, with more and more time at council meetings devoted to the topic, the council passed a resolution calling for the city to secede from Illinois, and to form the State of Chicago.Downstate defenders of the status quo continued to dig their heels in, even forming organizations such as the League for the Defense of Downstate Voters. Only in 1955 did the Illinois legislature finally bow to the inevitable, redistricting for the first time since 1901. Even then, downstate leaders struck a deal to maintain control in the state Senate, until Supreme Court rulings in Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964) decreed that state legislative-district populations be “of roughly equal size.” Ever since, Chicago and Cook County politicians have dominated Illinois elections.What, then, of the prospects of minority rule at the federal level in the coming years? The coming years seem likely to see Republicans attempt to strengthen their grip on power despite their weakness at the ballot box. With the appointment of Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court, conservatives have a 6–3 majority on the bench, and important rulings loom on issues such as health care, abortion rights, and gay marriage. Policies supported by a majority of Americans in opinion polls could be ruled unconstitutional, all because a president who lost the popular vote nominated three justices, and senators representing a minority of the American population confirmed them. With President-elect Biden likely facing a divided Congress, Democrats have no institutional means of turning electoral support into legislative action, to say nothing of fixing underlying representation issues.But Republicans may not be able to sustain their power for long—at least not peacefully. As the cases above show, when parties commit themselves to minority rule, the backlash can be severe. While the letter of the law allows Republicans to control the Senate and the judiciary, the spirit of republican government demands otherwise. The two cannot long exist in tension with each other. Though the 2020 election did not result in a blue tidal wave, it did suggest emerging Democratic majorities in formerly red states such as Arizona and Georgia. If, eventually, demographic change adds North Carolina and Texas to the mix, national elections would more accurately reflect the national popular vote. History suggests that Republicans would then pay—dearly—for their years of minority rule. If Republicans hope for greater success than their historical counterparts, they would do well to heed the message that a party cannot maintain power forever, and embark on a more genuinely collaborative and bipartisan approach to government. Short of that, they risk much more than their political careers.
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theatlantic.com
Power Up: Ivanka Trump is leaving the White House. She may not leave politics.
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washingtonpost.com
Trump Vows To Veto Defense Bill Unless Shield For Big Tech Is Scrapped
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npr.org
A Possible Vaccine Timeline
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nytimes.com
COVID Vaccines Are Being Targeted by Organized Crime Networks, Interpol Global Alert Warns
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newsweek.com