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Tipos de sal: cuánta puedo tomar al día y cuál es la más saludable

Muchas veces, la sal puede ser la clave de todo. Por muy bien hecha que esté una tortilla de patatas, si está sosa no hay nada que hacer. Lo mismo pasa si un jamón serrano está muy salado, por caro que haya costado, o si una crema de verduras está insulsa. Pero, la sal es algo tan típico, tan que damos por sentado, que muchas veces obviamos todo lo que tiene detrás. Porque sí, más allá de si eliges sal yodada o no, el mundo que este alimento esconde detrás es amplísimo: muchos tipos, usos y propiedades, que pueden hacer de tu plato algo de otro mundo. La nutricionista María Eugenia Fernández (@meugenia84) enumera los tipos de sal que podemos encontrar, y cuáles son sus usos en la cocina: - Sal común: También llamada sal de mesa, es la que solemos usar para cocinar. Esta sal está tratada químicamente para obtener una mayor pureza y mejorar las ventajas de uso y conservación. El tratamiento químico es lo que hace que tenga un color blanco uniforme. - Sal del Himalaya: Es una sal muy pura procedente de Pakistán. Tiene una textura crujiente y un grano más grueso. También se la conoce como «sal rosa» debido a su color, producto de su composición rica en hierro. Es ideal para cocinar pescados y carnes a la parrilla. - Sal marina: es más rica en sodio y cloruro, algo que nuestro organismo necesita. También contiene potasio, calcio y magnesio. Su procedencia son las salinas y no llevan ningún tipo de tratamiento. Su color es más bien gris pálido, debido a que contiene algas marinas. Es más beneficiosa para la salud que la sal refinada. - Sal de Gema o de Roca: Procede de las minas de sal, del mineral formado por la cristalización del cloruro de sodio. Es una sal que tiene un tamaño más grande y también es más seca y más pura que la sal común. Su sabor es amargo y la usamos para salar el agua y cocinar a la sal. - Sal Negra: La sal negra presenta este color dado su origen volcánico. Tiene menos poder de salar que la sal común y una textura de sal fina. Se usa para pescados y carnes a la plancha, verduras y ensaladas, por ejemplo. - Escamas de sal: Su elaboración es artesanal. Tiene una textura crujiente y con forma de escamas. Es ideal para ensaladas y cocinar carnes y verduras a la brasa. Debes echar menos cantidad sobre el producto cocinado que si se tratara de la sal común. Aunque la sal de por sí es un alimento, hay otros que tienen cierto contenido en sodio, por lo que ya «traen la sal de casa». Al preguntarle a la nutricionista por si debemos evitar ciertos alimentos por su alto contenido en sodio, Fernández apunta que estas restricciones, en general, solo están enfocadas a personas con patologías renales o diabetes. Entre estos alimentos, encontramos lácteos como la leche en polvo o quesos incluido el queso fresco; Carnes ahumadas, carnes curadas y los fiambres; el pescado ahumado y en conserva, los cereales y panes, así como alimentos profesados como las sopas de sobre o pizzas. También, encurtidos como las aceitunas, las verduras envasadas, y salsas como la mostaza y mayonesa industrial es mejor evitarlos. Quitar la sal no es siempre la solución «Restringir el consumo de sodio no siempre es una práctica adecuada, por ejemplo, en una dieta baja en carbohidratos, o cuando ayunamos, las necesidades de electrolitos, y en especial la del sodio, aumentan debido a la pérdida de minerales que se da a través de la orina», recuerda María Eugenia Fernández. Por último, la nutricionista habla sobre la cantidad de sal que debemos consumir de manera óptima al día. «La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) recomienda un consumo de sodio en adultos de unos de 5 g/día, el equivalente a una cucharita de postre», comenta, y añade: «No obstante, algunos investigadores no están de acuerdo con estas pautas». Concluye Fernández explicando que un estudio publicado en la revista Cell Metabolism concluyó que tomar sal en cantidades muy pequeñas puede «hacer más mal que bien al organismo», ya que el sodio es necesario para la función del sistema nervioso y corporal y nos ayuda a regular los fluidos corporales.
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