Generally
General
1210

Trump Hits Back After Ally Denounces ‘Weakness’ With Iran

The president was responding on Tuesday night to a series of tweets by Senator Lindsey Graham, who has long been one of the more hawkish members of the Republican conference.
Load more
Go to source www.nytimes.com
unread news
unread news (Demo user)
U.S. chief justice juggles dual roles during Trump impeachment trial
U.S. Chief Justice John Roberts pulled double duty on Tuesday as he juggled dual responsibilities at the Supreme Court and President Donald Trump's impeachment trial.
8 m
reuters.com
Victim of sex trafficking fights shuttered website Backpage
The lawsuit filed Tuesday in state court in Manhattan by Melanie Thompson, now 23, charges that the men who ran Backpage advertised her for sex even though they knew she was a minor, masking her age in the ads to keep law enforcers at bay.
8 m
nypost.com
Wall Street falls as China virus reaches the U.S.
Wall Street lost ground on Tuesday, backing away from record highs as a viral outbreak from China found its way to U.S. shores and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) lowered its global economic growth forecast.
9 m
reuters.com
Students with disabilities get life-changing equipment
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Peeping Tom scares UNCG student
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Sheriff's Office announces retirement of K9
9 m
edition.cnn.com
County declares Second Amendment 'safe haven'
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Man wins lottery prize using family birthdays
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Young barbers club pushes kids to avoid violence
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Young black women-owned businesses are growing
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Waze App sends drivers to wildlife area
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Law clerk named Danny DeVito running for office
9 m
edition.cnn.com
Op-Ed: Trump lawyers argue abuse of power isn't a thing when it comes to impeachment. History says otherwise
For fans of legal combat, the impeachment trial promises to be entertaining, but the Trump legal team's constitutional arguments can barely pass a straight-face test.
latimes.com
Spread of coronavirus prompts CDC to expand 'enhanced health screenings' to 2 more US airports
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced it will expand health entry screenings to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport and O’Hare International Airport in Chicago, as the U.S. on Tuesday reported its first case of the potentially deadly coronavirus.
foxnews.com
Modern studies suggest ‘normal’ body temperature of 98.6 is incorrect
Nearly 150 years ago, a German physician analyzed a million temperatures from 25,000 patients and concluded that normal human-body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. That standard has been published in numerous medical texts and helped generations of parents judge the gravity of a child’s illness. But at least two dozen modern studies have concluded the...
nypost.com
Ivanka Trump ignores questions on impeachment trial at Davos
In Davos, Switzerland, at the World Economic Forum, CNN's Jim Acosta asked Ivanka Trump to comment on the impeachment trial of President Donald Trump.
edition.cnn.com
The change MLK Jr.'s children and grandchild hope to see in the world
Martin Luther King Jr.'s granddaughter Yolanda King shares what issue she hopes to help change. The civil rights leader's daughter Bernice King comments on the need to be a responsible citizen and his son Martin Luther King III says he's inspired by movements like Black Lives Matter, #MeToo and others.
cbsnews.com
The Former Journalist Who Is Bernie Sanders’s Media Critic
David Sirota’s job is to remind the candidate’s supporters why he dislikes the news media.
nytimes.com
Adam Schiff responds to attacks on House managers
Rep. Adam Schiff (D-CA) says when GOP lawmakers attack Democratic House managers, including himself, they don't want to "talk about the President's guilt."
edition.cnn.com
Hillary Clinton asks 'How could we have known?' about Weinstein, Farrow's reporting suggests otherwise
Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was asked about her ties to disgraced film mogul Harvey Weinstein and implied that she and other Democrats who've been associated with the accused predator did not know about his history of sexual misconduct, but reporting from "Catch and Kill" author Ronan Farrow suggested otherwise.  
foxnews.com
Trump impeachment trial live updates: Heated arguments over McConnell proposed rules
The Senate impeachment trial of President Trump begins with a fight over the fairness of proposed rules to govern the proceeding.
abcnews.go.com
Cuomo says bail reform is an ‘ongoing process’
Gov. Andrew Cuomo suggested Tuesday that lawmakers would amend the state’s controversial new bail-reform law, but fired back at critics by saying any changes would be based on “information and not hyperbole.” During his budget address for fiscal 2021 in Albany, Cuomo defended the measure by insisting that “reform is an ongoing process.” “It’s not...
nypost.com
Gus Malzahn to give Chad Morris full control of Auburn offense in 2020
Auburn coach Gus Malzahn is giving up control of the team's offense to new coordinator Chad Morris, who will assume play-calling duties.        
usatoday.com
Andrew McCarthy: How both sides in Trump impeachment trial are undermining their own cases
Both sides in the Senate impeachment trial of President Trump are undermining their cases with their lofty rhetoric, former federal prosecutor Andrew McCarthy said Tuesday.
foxnews.com
Lawmakers only allowed to drink milk, water on the Senate floor
Under an obscure rule, lawmakers on the Senate floor are only allowed to drink milk or water, greatly limiting the menu available to them throughout the impeachment trial against President Trump.
nypost.com
Trump’s Myth About Adam Schiff
Never in the field of political conflict has so much been made by so many out of so little.Since the topic here is caricatured speeches, I hasten to add: Winston Churchill didn’t say that. As the Senate’s impeachment trial of Donald Trump begins, one of the more curious, and less enlightening, elements has been the focus by the president’s legal team on mentioning an old speech by Representative Adam Schiff, the leading House impeachment manager.During a September 26 hearing of the House Intelligence Committee, which he chairs, Schiff delivered an ill-advised parody rendition of Trump’s July phone call with President Volodymr Zelensky of Ukraine. Although the president’s team keeps promising a defense of Trump’s behavior on the merits, it has been more inclined to invoke that moment than to offer any substantial defense.On Tuesday, the Senate impeachment trial began with what was ostensibly an argument about its rules, as proposed by Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. Trump’s lawyers began with brief comments endorsing the rules. Then Schiff spoke at length, with a detailed (though doomed) argument for why the rules should be altered to include calling witnesses and gathering documents. Then came a rebuttal by the president’s lawyers.[Quinta Jurecic and Benjamin Wittes: Trump’s impeachment brief is a howl of rage]“It's very difficult to sit there and listen to Mr. Schiff tell the tale that he just told,” said White House Counsel Pat Cipollone. “Let's remember how we all got here. They made false allegations about a telephone call. The president of the United States declassified that telephone call and released it to the public.” (It’s unclear what about the allegations were false; Trump released the call in a last-ditch effort to forestall impeachment after weeks of stonewalling.)Cipollone continued: “When Mr. Schiff saw that his allegations were false, and he knew it anyway, what did he do? He went to the House, and he manufactured a fraudulent version of that call. He manufactured a false version of that call. He read it to the American people, and he didn't tell them it was a complete fake.”Cipollone’s philippic had effectively zero relevance to the matter at hand, but it was surely not a mistake or a coincidence. The September 26 episode has been at the center of Trump’s defense messaging.In the president’s reply brief on January 18, Cipollone and Trump’s lawyer Jay Sekulow wrote, “Mr. Schiff created a fraudulent version of the July 25 call and read it to the American people at a congressional hearing, without disclosing that he was simply making it all up. The fact that Mr. Schiff felt the need to fabricate a false version of the July 25 call proves that he and his colleagues knew there was absolutely nothing wrong with that call.”And in their longer trial memorandum on January 20, they wrote, “Chairman Schiff began the hearings in this matter by lying once again and reading a fabricated version of the President’s telephone conversation with President Zelenskyy to the American people.”There’s no arguing that Schiff’s rendition of the phone call was extremely dumb. There was no need to dramatize or exaggerate the call, which is is extremely incriminating on its own. With his stunt, Schiff gave his opponents a useful tool to demagogue the whole proceeding. It was perhaps Schiff’s biggest tactical error of the impeachment so far.And it is also completely beside the point. Cries of “fraudulent” aside, Schiff was fooling no one. The transcript was already, at that point, public, so anyone could read it for themselves. No one in the room with Schiff believed he was offering the real transcript; it’s doubtful anyone watching on TV or the internet did, either, and in any case Schiff acknowledged it was not real.[David A. Graham: Impeachment is incredibly popular]That didn’t stop Trump from tweeting about it again and again and again. The frequency with which the president has tweeted about the episode has much to do with the frequency with which his lawyers have invoked it. It’s a question of audience. Sometimes lawyers use legalese; this legal team is speaking Hannity-ese. They aren’t trying to convince any senators as a matter of law, because the lawyers know that there aren’t the votes to convict Trump and remove him from office. Nor are they making any attempt to convince the plurality of Americans who support removing Trump.The Trump team’s defense is political, not legal, and thus it echoes the president’s political strategy throughout his tenure: He has focused on ginning up support among the minority of Americans who (staunchly) back him, while making practically no effort to expand his support and win over those who oppose him. Instead, he caters to the conservative media outlets that prop him up. Ranting about Schiff’s dumb parody doesn’t win any legal points, but it will score points—and get airtime—in those outlets.As with many of Trump’s base plays, this one is deeply cynical. It supposes that voters have no sense of proportion or weight. Even if Schiff had been trying to fool someone, it’s absurd to assign such a moment equal weight as the accusations against Trump. The president stands accused of subverting American foreign policy and the will of Congress, coercing a foreign government to interfere in domestic affairs to aid his own reelection effort; and of obstructing the function of Congress. Adam Schiff stands accused of making some dumb remarks.And if the president’s lawyers really believed that telling goofy and easily disprovable lies was disqualifying for a political leader, they’d be working for different clients.
theatlantic.com
Boeing stock drops as approval for 737 Max delayed until 'mid-2020'
Boeing does not expect regulators to allow its beleaguered 737 Max aircrafts to return to service until at least "mid-2020," the company announced Tuesday.
abcnews.go.com
Kansas City Chiefs and San Francisco 49ers prepare for Super Bowl LIV
In this week's Tuesday Morning Quarterback, James Brown, a CBS News special correspondent and host of "The NFL Today," joins CBSN to preview the upcoming Super Bowl LIV. He discussed each team's strengths and key players for the matchup. He also looked at diversity off the field and what the NFL is doing to fix it.
cbsnews.com
Impeachments in history: Bill Clinton's trial
foxnews.com
Netflix adds subscribers as competition ramps up
Netflix released its earnings on Tuesday, finally giving itself a chance to calm the nerves of jittery investors who are concerned about the rise of rivals. So did Netflix shrug off its competitors or did its subscriber base take a hit?
edition.cnn.com
CAA appoints new 11-member board to guide the agency's future
The Century City-based talent representation giant's co-chairmen, Richard Lovett, Bryan Lourd and Kevin Huvane, will remain with the company.
latimes.com
The New York Times gave Bernie Sander a 'middle finger': Leslie Marshall
Fox News contributor Leslie Marshall said that the New York Times decision to endorse two women for president was a rebuke of Sen. Bernie Sanders.
foxnews.com
Why John Roberts won’t save the impeachment trial from partisanship
US Supreme Court Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. waits for the arrival of former US President George H.W. Bush at the US Capitol Rotunda on December 3, 2018, in Washington, DC. | Jabin Botsford via Getty Images What to expect from the man presiding over the impeachment process. The Supreme Court is the most consequential institution in American politics. And yet the public almost never gets to see the chief justice, or any of the justices for that matter, in action. This will change as President Trump’s impeachment trial moves to the Senate on Tuesday. The Constitution provides that the chief justice “shall preside” over the impeachment trial of a president. The role of the chief justice is mostly ceremonial and may only matter in the event that a tie-breaker vote is needed; historically, chief justices have relied on a Senate parliamentarian to manage the process. But Roberts could, if he chose, exert real influence on the trial by compelling witnesses to appear or by ruling on the admissibility of evidence. It’s not likely, but it is possible. Since there’s a chance that Roberts, who was picked to lead the court in 2005 by George W. Bush, might play a significant role in the impeachment saga, I reached out to Joan Biskupic, author of The Chief: The Life and Turbulent Times of Chief Justice John Roberts. Biskupic has covered the Supreme Court for more than 20 years and knows Roberts about as well as anyone. We discussed Roberts’s ideological background; the role he’s played on the court and in American politics; and whether we can expect him to preside over Trump’s trial impartially. A lightly edited transcript of our conversation follows. Sean Illing What would you say is the most important thing the average citizen should know about John Roberts? Joan Biskupic John Roberts is a student of history; before getting his law degree at Harvard, he considered a PhD in history. So he is aware of the weight on his shoulders as he presides over only the third Senate trial of a president in US history. He will be ready for his moment on the dais. He is reserved, cautious, and will probably follow the lead of his mentor William Rehnquist, who presided at the Clinton trial in 1999, and insert himself in the process as little as possible. He will also be thinking about his place in history. He said at one public appearance fairly early in his tenure: “You wonder if you’re going to be John Marshall or you’re going to be Roger Taney. The answer is, of course, you are certainly not going to be John Marshall. But you want to avoid the danger of being Roger Taney.” Sean Illing Who was Roger Taney? Joan Biskupic Chief Justice Taney wrote the 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, which many people regard as the worst ruling ever. He said African Americans could not be citizens, invalidated the Missouri compromise, helped lead to the Civil War. Sean Illing Would you call Roberts a moderate? A conservative? An ideologue? Joan Biskupic Roberts cannot be defined by a single label. He is generally conservative, as we have seen on issues such as race, religion and campaign finance. But recall that in 2012, he split from his conservative brethren to cast the deciding vote to uphold the Obama-sponsored Affordable Care Act. As I chronicled in my book, that move came after multiple switched votes and tense negotiations with his colleagues. Today, the chief holds even more of a controlling vote because he is at the ideological center of the court (post-Anthony Kennedy). Overall, he is likely to continue to show his conservative stripes but in certain high-profile cases, when he is in the middle, he’ll inch to the center. Last June’s census case decision is an example of that. Sean Illing Does he put his role a justice over his identity as a conservative Republican? Do his rulings bear that out? Joan Biskupic We’ve had 45 presidents and only 17 chief justices. That’s where his identity is, not in his former roles as an appellate lawyer or a member of the Reagan-Bush administrations. His prior political work may shape his approach, and he has revealed his conservative roots in his rulings, but he is mostly mindful of what he’s doing as chief justice. Sean Illing As you know, Roberts just released the 2019 Year-End Report on the Federal Judiciary. The political undertones of these things are often hard to decipher, but he wrote that “We have come to take democracy for granted” and explicitly called for more “civic education.” What do you make of that? Do you think he was quietly speaking to Trump? Joan Biskupic I think he was speaking to many constituencies in that report: the public most broadly, fellow judges and Trump, too. Even before Trump came into office, Roberts was concerned about the judiciary becoming entangled in politics. “We don’t work as Democrats or Republicans,” he has said repeatedly. Since Trump took office, that message has taken on more urgency. Think of the chief’s rebuke of Trump over the so-called “Obama judge” in November 2018. Sean Illing Roberts’s role in the Senate impeachment trial is largely ceremonial, but if circumstances force him to get involved, how do you expect him to handle it? Joan Biskupic Under the Senate rules, he could be asked to rule on the relevance and materiality of evidence. I think he will try to avoid any decision that influences the direction of the trial and whether Trump is acquitted or convicted. He would want Mitch McConnell and Chuck Schumer to work out what they can, as Trent Lott and Tom Daschle did in 1999. We’re not in 1999, of course. Things are far more polarized, but as much as he can do it, I believe Chief Justice Roberts will relay anything substantive to a vote of the Senate and majority will. Sean Illing What role is do you expect him to play in the Senate impeachment trial? Do you think he’ll be fair and impartial? Joan Biskupic I think he will enter the chamber on Tuesday intent on being fair and impartial and signaling in every way that he is both objective — and detached from the Senate as the true decision-maker here. Remember, the senators are sitting as the “court” in this instance. The chief justice works in a world far from television cameras. Many people watching the Senate trial will be seeing him in action for the first time. He will try to set a sense of decorum and avoid anything that would put him or the Supreme Court in a bad light.
vox.com
Lucky's Market to close dozens of stores in 10 states
Closures come just over a month after Kroger said it would sell its stake in the upstart natural foods chain.
cbsnews.com
Trump's top defender locks horns with Democrats at impeachment trial
U.S. President Donald Trump's impeachment trial began in earnest in the Senate on Tuesday, with his chief legal defender attacking the case as baseless and a top Democratic lawmaker saying there was "overwhelming" evidence of wrongdoing.
reuters.com
13 Super Bowl snacks you can easily make in your slow cooker
For easy game day eats, use your slow cooker.       
usatoday.com
Boeing warns of new 737 MAX delay, now sees mid-year return to service
Boeing Co said on Tuesday it does not expect to win approval for the return of the 737 MAX to service until mid-year due to further potential developments in the certification process and regulatory scrutiny on its flight control system.
reuters.com
Supreme Court rejects fast-track review of health care suit
WASHINGTON — The Supreme Court refused Tuesday to consider a fast-track review of a lawsuit that threatens the Obama-era health care law, making it highly unlikely that the justices would decide the case before the 2020 election. The court denied a request by 20 mainly Democratic states and the Democratic-led House of Representatives to decide...
nypost.com
Amid concerns about violence and infrastructure, Mississippi's Parchman prison reports two more inmate deaths
Two inmates were killed at a Mississippi State Penitentiary after an altercation, the state Department of Corrections and county coroner said Tuesday.
edition.cnn.com
Trump’s lawyers began the impeachment trial with a blizzard of lies
Sekulow (L) and Cipollone (R) arrive at the US Capitol on Tuesday. | Oliver Douliery/AFP via Getty Images The opening statements from Trump’s lawyers indicated that gaslighting will be a key part of their strategy. The opening debate of the Senate impeachment trial on Tuesday afternoon was supposed to be merely about the trial rules. But in quintessential Trump fashion, members of President Donald Trump’s legal team wasted no time telling a number of lies before things really got going. Though getting facts wrong might be somewhat understandable in the context of extemporaneous statements, these falsehoods came in the context of prepared remarks read by White House counsel Pat Cipollone and personal Trump attorney Jay Sekulow. And if that approach is indicative of how the rest of the trial will go, casual watchers may end up with an understanding of the timeline of Trump’s Ukraine dealings and ensuing impeachment that’s at odds with reality. Falsehood No. 1: Trump’s lawyers claimed Republicans didn’t have access to key information during House impeachment inquiry As part of an effort to portray the process that resulted in Trump’s impeachment and trial as a partisan witch hunt, Cipollone at one point complained that “not even [House Intelligence Committee chair and impeachment manager Adam] Schiff’s Republican colleagues were allowed into the SCIF,” or Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility, which is basically the secure facility that members of Congress used to review classified information pertinent to the impeachment inquiry. "Not even Mr. Schiff's Republican colleagues were allowed into the SCIF" -- this is a blatant lie from Cipollone pic.twitter.com/A4cWhwRSUo— Aaron Rupar (@atrupar) January 21, 2020 This assertion is not true. As a number of reporters pointed out, not only did Republicans involved in the impeachment have access to the SCIF, but many of them also used it. Cipollone says “Not even Mr. Schiff’s Republican colleagues were allowed into the SCIF” during impeachment investigation. That’s 100% false. Any member of the three investigating committees could attend, and many Republicans did!— Garrett Haake (@GarrettHaake) January 21, 2020 As part of a made-for-TV stunt, House Republicans did storm a SCIF in October to protest Democrats not providing Republicans who were otherwise uni in the impeachment inquiry with access to closed-door depositions. However, Republicans who were on one of the three committees involved in the process had the same access as Democrats. When the trial resumed after a brief pause following Sekulow and Cipollone’s statements, Schiff noted that Cipollone made “a false statements” about access to the SCIF, and said, “I will tell you this: He’s mistaken. He’s mistaken ... [Republicans] got the same time we did.” Falsehood No. 2: Schiff “manufactured” Trump’s comments during the July Zelensky call That wasn’t the only easily refutable lie pushed by Cipollone during his trial-opening remarks on Tuesday. At another point, he alluded to how Schiff paraphrased Trump’s now-infamous July phone call with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky and claimed, “when Mr. Schiff saw that his allegations [about Trump abusing his power] were false, and he know it anyway, what did he do? He went to the House and he manufactured a fraudulent version of that phone call.” “He read it to the American people, and he didn’t tell them it was a complete fake,” Cipollone added, echoing a talking point that Trump has incessantly used to discredit the impeachment inquiry. Another new low.White House Counsel for President of United States on the floor of Senate engaging in disinformation.Repeating false claim that Schiff “manufactured a false version of that call.” The call transcript was ALREADY PUBLIC, Schiff was obviously paraphrasing it. https://t.co/8lmfZ5gGey— Ryan Goodman (@rgoodlaw) January 21, 2020 But those comments are a gross mischaracterization of what Schiff did. Schiff paraphrased the phone call for dramatic effect, and made clear he was doing so. While that decision may have been an ill-advised one — I criticized it at the time because it provided Trump with grist to diminish the proceedings — in no way did Schiff try and bamboozle people into believing Trump said things he didn’t say. Cipollone on Schiff's summary of the call: "He read it to the American people, and he didn't tell them it was a complete fake."In fact, Schiff disclosed up-front that his summary of what Trump said on the call was "shorn of its rambling character and in not so many words."— Aaron Blake (@AaronBlake) January 21, 2020 And there was more Cipollone wasn’t alone in getting basic stuff wrong. Sekulow’s opening statement also served as an extended complaint about process, but he also managed to mangle the facts (he claimed House Democrats delayed transmitting articles of impeachment to the Senate for a longer period of time than was actually the case) and mischaracterize the impeachment process (he said Trump “was denied the right to cross-examine witnesses” during the House inquiry when in fact the White House declined to do so). Sekulow: "The President was denied the right to cross-examine witnesses.... denied the right to access evidence... and denied the right to have counsel present at hearings. That's a trifecta, a trifecta that violates the Constitution of the United States." #CheddarNews pic.twitter.com/k75rB18rjd— Cheddar News (@CheddarNews) January 21, 2020 Although most of the impeachment trial is still to come, the way Cipollone and Sekulow handled their opening statements suggests the White House is confident they have little to worry about from Senate Republicans, some of whom have indicated they would at least like to hear from witnesses as part of the process. Facts, not to mention a sense of shame, will not get in the way of the narrative Trump’s legal team intends to push about Democrats having it out for the president — and they’re betting that the American people either won’t be able to see through it or agrees with them. Schiff made clear that he also views Cipollone and Sekulow’s false claims as part of a strategy. After the aforementioned break, he mentioned a number of the lies and said, “why don’t they have a better argument to make on the merits?” SCHIFF: "When you hear them attack the House managers, what you're really hearing is 'we don't want to talk about POTUS's guilt ... so we'll attack the House managers b/c maybe we can distract you for a moment' ... why don't they have a better argument to make on the merits?" pic.twitter.com/W8CgaHCgXO— Aaron Rupar (@atrupar) January 21, 2020 When he wrapped up, the next speaker — Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) — also devoted some time to debunking false claims Cipollone made about Trump and executive privilege. The news moves fast. To stay updated, follow Aaron Rupar on Twitter, and read more of Vox’s policy and politics coverage.
vox.com
Akim Aliu signs with Czech league team
Former NHL forward Akim Aliu has signed in the Czech Extraliga for the remainder of the season, a person with direct knowledge of the move told The Associated Press on Tuesday.
foxnews.com
Taylor Swift reveals her mother has a brain tumor
Taylor Swift has revealed in a new interview that her mother has a brain tumor
washingtonpost.com
Sharon Osbourne thanks fans for ‘outpouring of love’ after Ozzy’s Parkinson’s reveal
"Ozzy will be just over the moon," she added. 
nypost.com
The Smartphone Has Changed How History Is Written
History, as a discipline, comes out of the archive. The archive is not the library, but something else entirely. Libraries spread knowledge that’s been compressed into books and other media. Archives are where collections of papers are stored, usually within an inner sanctum of a library. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s papers, say, at the New York Public Library. Or Record Group 31 at the National Archives—a set of Federal Housing Administrative documents from the 1930s to the1970s. Usually, an archive contains materials from the people and institutions near it. So, the Silicon Valley Archive at Stanford contain everything from Atari’s business plans to HP co-founder William Hewlett’s correspondence.While libraries have become central actors in the digitization of knowledge, archives have generally resisted this trend. They are still almost overwhelmingly paper. Traditionally, you’d go to a place like this and sit there, day after day, “turning every page,” as the master biographer Robert Caro put it. You might spend weeks, months, or like Caro, years, working through all the boxes, taking extensive notes and making some (relatively expensive) photo copies. Fewer and fewer people have the time, money, or patience to do that. (If they ever did.)Enter the smartphone, and cheap digital photography. Instead of reading papers during an archival visit, historians can snap pictures of the documents and then look at them later. Ian Milligan, a historian at the University of Waterloo, noticed the trend among his colleagues and surveyed 250 historians, about half tenured or tenure-track, half in other positions, about their work in the archives. The results quantified the new normal. While there is a subset of researchers (~23 percent) who took few (less than 200) photos, the plurality (~40 percent) of researchers took more than 2,000 photographs for their “last substantive project.”The driving force here is simple enough. Digital photos drive down the cost of archival research, allowing an individual to capture far more documents per hour. So, an archival visit becomes a process of standing over documents, snapping pictures as quickly as possible. Some researchers organize their photos swiping on an iPhone, or with an open-source tool named Tropy; some, like Alex Wellerstein, a historian at Stevens Institute of Technology, have special digital camera setups, and a standardized method. In my own work, I used Dropbox’s photo tools, which I used to output PDFs, which dropped into Scrivener, my preferred writing software.These practices might seem like a subtle shift—researchers are still going to collections and requesting boxes and reading papers—but the ways that information is collected and managed transmute what historians can learn from it. There has been, as Milligan put it, a “dramatic reshaping of historical practice.” Different histories will be written because the tools of the discipline are changing.***I’ve spent a lot of time in archives. They make me feel like a pilgrim of a very obscure religion, and the process shares the features of other sacred journeys. You put your things in a special locker, keeping only laptop, phone, pencil. You’re inspected for purity on the way into the sanctum and instructed in a series of obscure rights and responsibilities that attend to touching this very special paper. The rooms are beautiful. No one talks. Everyone is on a secret mission, just like you. Sometimes you’re handed white gloves. They don’t smell of old books—that’s the glue, a part of publishing—but sometimes, when you catch a whiff of perfume, lead, ink, chemicals, it seems as if a box exhales the very air of the past. On the way out, you must prove you’ve stolen nothing from the boxes that are kept in the vaults. Paper more valuable than gold! (Inhales dust.)But this sort of rarified “archive mysticism,” which, Wallerstein said, “literally goes back to Ranke”—Leopold von Ranke, the celebrated 19th century historian—is more romantic than analytical. For historians who need grant funding and child care, or life support from their families and partners, the ideal “that to be a historian is to find the right archive and go inhale its dust” can be unachievable. Shorter trips mean cheaper trips, which, Milligan predicts, will make archival work more accessible.In other words, different types of people will be able to do history. “I would expect this to lead to more top-notch, archivally-based scholarly work from those outside of well-resourced institutions,” Milligan told me. “It also opens up a lot more ability to research for people who are caregivers, whether for children or parents, which will lead to more diverse authors.”[Read: Artificial intelligence is cracking open the Vatican’s secret archives]It may be, too, that widespread digitization of archival materials could allow people outside the professionalized, largely western historical tradition to do history. Tim Hitchcock, a historian at the University of Sussex, put the argument in transnational context: Digitization has “democratised historical research, creating a space for people to interrogate their own communities' histories,” he wrote to me. Different people working with the same historical materials will probably change how history is written.Even the same person, though, might write differently if their core process changes. Miriam Pawel, the author of several books based on archival material., purchased a huge screen for her latest, she told me. and could simultaneously pull up photos of documents and her word doc. Counterintuitively, because it’s harder to work with documents on a screen than to flip through photocopied pages, she found herself taking more detailed notes on her first pass through documents than she had when she worked on paper. That translated into a more detailed outline for her massive biography of the California governors Pat and Jerry Brown, The Browns of California, and she thinks, a book that better reflected the material in the archives.There’s some precedent for how history has been changed by increasing digital accessibility. Wellerstein groups photo-taking in the archives under a broader set of changes that he terms “high volume” research methods. “The practices will change what kind of questions you’ll ask,” he said. Take a highly regarded book, Charles Rosenberg’s The Cholera Years. In it, Rosenberg tracks how three newspapers in New York covered cholera. “He spent years working on that,” Wellerstein said. “You can call up every source he used in that book in one afternoon using ProQuest,” one of several databases of newspapers.That does not invalidate the book, which Wellerstein described as “great,” but someone working on the same topic now would have the option to expand the field of inquiry. “You might look nationally, internationally, look over a vast amount of time, correlate cholera with something else,” he said. “Would you get better history? I don’t know. You’d get different history though.”[Read: Future historians probably won’t understand our internet, and that’s okay]If a single archive visit allows a historian to capture five, ten, 20 times as many documents, the expectations of the depth of archival work will almost certainly increase. Patrick McCray, a historian at the University of California, Santa Barbara, quantified the increase in the documents he has captured over time by looking at the size of his files for several different books. “The file for my giant telescopes book (2004) is 9.7MB now,” he wrote to me. ”My Moonwatch book (2008) file size = 2 GB; Visioneers (2012) = 10 GB.” His most recent book is already up to 77 GB.Was there something to the long, paper-rich archive visit, though? As with so many things in the digital age, the downsides have often been less obvious than the conveniences, but they emerge eventually.In a 2016 essay, the University of Pittsburgh historian Lara Putnam argued that archival visits used to require picking up local knowledge. But the rise of digital searching generally “decouples data from place.” You don’t have to know anything about a particular neighborhood, city, region, or nation to find relevant information to a project. “Peripheral vision was prohibitively expensive,” Putnam writes. Now, you’re expected to know what might lie outside the frame of your argument. If you’re writing about Germany, why not take a database peak at Switzerland, or if you’re working on Brazil, why not search Angola (or Mexico)?But you might lose another kind of peripheral vision—what’s going on locally at the archive you’re visiting. All the difficulty of getting to and staying near an archive might have had some purposes. “This experiential friction, the very thing that made international historical research in an analog world inefficient, tends to teach border-crossing researchers things they need to know, whether they know it or not,” Putnam observed. “When foreign researchers slog away in archives day after day next to in-country intellectuals, they can be forced to confront the value of locally produced expertise.”Wellerstein pointed to a related problem he found himself fighting. When you digitize more, you can be tempted to believe that your record is complete, even though historians know that only certain things are captured in documentary evidence. “You can overestimate your knowledge when it looks like you have everything,” he said.Like so many changes in day-to-day life brought on by smartphones, it’s hard to sort out the directionality or even angle of change, as the devices we use intersect with other layers of our societies. This being history, then, it’s important to note the other contexts for this era of historical inquiry: a decline in Cold War funding of “area studies,” a deepening financial globalization, the precarity of most graduate students (and some professors), a widening of the historical profession to include historically excluded groups, a reevaluation of the postcolonial position of research universities in western countries, and many other things.But the literal job of doing history has changed. It works through screens now, that much is for sure. Now, we’ll have to look to the historians to document what that means.
theatlantic.com
Frozen iguanas fall out of trees in Florida (2018)
An arctic blast brought subfreezing temperatures, high winds and flooding to the East Coast.
edition.cnn.com
Democrats already have these four victories
They understand that their audience is the public.
washingtonpost.com
Las consecuencias del escándalo de robo de señales
AJ Hinch, Alex Cora y Carlos Beltrán perdieron sus trabajos a raíz del escándalo de robo de señales de los Astros de Houston, dejando a tres equipos sin managers antes del comienzo de los entrenamientos de primavera.
latimes.com
'No crime, no impeachment' - is that true?
The White House defence that no crime means no impeachment ignores history, says legal scholar Jonathan Turley.
Politica